Scientific Program

Conference Series LLC Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 6th International Conference on Smart Materials & Structures Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Adam H Khan

AKHAN Semiconductor, USA

Keynote: Multilayer nanocrystalline diamond for optical sensing and electronics display application

Time : 09:00-09:45

Smart Materials 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Adam H Khan photo
Biography:

Adam Khan is Founder and CEO of AKHAN Semiconductor. He has authored several patents and technical publications, and is also a frequent speaker on Diamond Semiconductor and Clean Technology. As a result of his award-winning research, which he began as an Electrical Engineering student at age 19, he is co-inventor of the Miraj Diamond™ Platform. He has served as a Speaker and Expert Witness to a variety of Federal bodies, including the US House Space, Science and Technology Committee and the US Department of Energy. Most recently, his work was recognized and individually honored by the United States Congress in the 114th Congressional Records and Proceedings. He earned his BS in Electrical Engineering and Physics from the University of Illinois Chicago, before pursuing graduate research at Stanford University. He has been everything from a Forbes 30 under 30 honoree, to a CleanTech Open Midwest Innovation Summit winner

Abstract:

Diamond is a well-known material that commands many excellent characteristics including great hardness,high thermal conductivity, high-optical transparency, and excellent chemical stability. In this work, we study the practical and economical usage of Nanocyrstalline Diamond (NCD) as a fi rst surface in an anti-refl ective coating upon a traditional substrate. Using measured index of refraction and extinction coeffi cient values, multi-layer coating solutions for diff erent spectral regions such as the visible or infrared wavelengths were developed using OpenFilters optical design soft ware. Th e simulation results from OpenFilters soft ware indicate comparable transmissivity and refl ectivity performance to known solutions while providing enhanced mechanical properties such as improved breakage and scratch performance and resistance to impact from airborne particles. Pioneering work on low temperature, high quality diamond deposition methods by AKHAN Semiconductor Inc. has opened the doors for the use of diamond in a wide variety of optical applications. It is shown that Nanocrystalline Diamond (NCD) coatings with grain size of 10-100 nm can signifi cantly enhance the breakage, scratch performance and hydrophobicity of glass displays and lenses. With Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) device integration now possible utilizing nanocrystalline diamond on a wide variety of optical substrates, new opportunities are now possible for the next generation of optical sensing technologies.

Smart Materials 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Anirudha V Sumant photo
Biography:

Anirudha Sumant is a Materials Scientist working at Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National leading the research on nanocarbon materials including CVD-diamond, carbon nanotube and graphene. He has more than 22 years of research experience in the synthesis, characterization and developing applications of carbon based materials. His main research interests include electronic, mechanical and tribological properties of carbon based materials, surface chemistry, micro/nano-scale tribology, and micro-nanofabrication. He is the author and co-author of more than 100 peer reviewed journal publications, two book chapters, winner of four R&D 100 awards, NASA Tech Brief Magazine Award, 2016 TechConnect National Innovation Award, has 20 patents granted, and 11 pending and given numerous invited talks. His research in diamond materials helped in the formation of several start-up companies including NCD Technologies Inc. and AKHAN Semiconductors Inc. He is a Member of MRS, STLE and AVS.

Abstract:

In our previous studies we have demonstrated that the new super lubricity mechanism at macroscale by combined uses of graphene mixed with nanodiamonds sliding against diamond-like carbon (DLC). In particular, we showed that super low friction regime (the coefficient of friction is 0.004) is observed when graphene patches wrap around the nano diamonds and form nanoscrolls with reduced contact area sliding against an incommensurate DLC surface. In the present study, we show that other two dimensional (2D) layered material such as molybdenum disulfi de (MoS2) is also capable of demonstrating super lubricity through unique tribochemical reaction with carbon leading to formation of onion-like carbon (OLC) at the tribological interface. We have observed that beyond some initial run-in period, the friction comes down to some unmeasurable levels and maintains in that state for a very long period of time, despite the fact that introduced 2D film of MoS2 is only a few nanometer thick. Our detailed experimental and theoretical investigations suggest that formation of OLCs is possible through tribochemical reaction with these 2D materials that could occur at the tribological contact due to high contact pressure. Th ese OLCs behaves in a similar way described earlier in our previous studies, providing reduced contact area and incommensurability with respect to the sliding DLC surface leading to super lubricity. We will discuss the detailed mechanism and highlight the similarities and diff erences with the previously demonstrated super lubricity involving graphenenanodamond ensembles. Th is new discovery broadens the fundamental understanding of frictional behavior of 2D materials beyond graphene and opens a wide range of possibilities for implementing them in mechanical and tribological applications involving static, sliding, and rotating contacts.

Break: 10:30-10:50 @ Foyer

Keynote Forum

James C Sung

Synthetic Element Six (SES), Taiwan

Keynote: Graphene on Diamond (GOD)

Time : 10:50-11:35

Smart Materials 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker James C Sung photo
Biography:

James C Sung was responsible for diamond production technology at GE Super Abrasives, for diamond tools development at Norton. He has set the diamond grid specifications for diamond disks used worldwide for CMP of IC wafers, and helped IPO of Kink Company in Taiwan. He co-founded graphene synthetic with Huang-He worldwide, the world's largest diamond maker located in Henan China. He is now Chairman of Applied Diamond Inc., selling the most advanced CMP diamond disks-V the manufacture of next generation interconnects.

 

Abstract:

Graphene is the stretched diamond (111) plane graphene can be formed martensitic alloy without breaking the carbon bonds, on diamond surface by specialty heat treatment in vacuum. In this case, Graphene on Diamond (GOD) heteroepitaxy is similar to homo-epitaxy so the signal transmission is continuous. GOD is an ideal computational device as graphene contains the most eff ective transmission lattice, capable of terahertz communication by Mach 100 speed of phonon (lattice vibration). On the other hand, diamond is considered to be the most stable quantum computing solid due to its highest Debye temperature. During the quantum computing, the Q-bits must be entangled without atomic vibration, and diamond’s super hard lattice is capable to maintain this stability for milliseconds, even at room temperature. Diamond contains about 1% C13 isotope atoms in the lattice. Th ese atoms may be ion planted and heat treated to cluster as Q-bits. Th e superposition of spins from the extra neutron in the nuclei would be the best mechanism for Quantum computing. With about 50 Q-bits entangled in milliseconds while these Q-bits are stationary, the vast Computational possibilities can tackle even more diffi cult problems that for all human transistors combined. With GOD, the quantum computing can be initiated with graphene on cubical face (100) of diamond; and the Collapsed quantum waves may exit from octahedral face (111). Thus, GOD would be the dream AI chip that Outperforms even the smartest combinations of all current computers interconnected together.

 

  • Graphene and Other 2D materials | Smart Materials and Technologies | Carbon Materials in Energy | Novel Hybrid Carbon Materials | Graphene Modifi cation and Functionalization | Applications of Carbon Nanotubes
Location: Oasis C
Speaker

Chair

Richard A Clark

Morgan Advanced Materials, USA

Speaker
Biography:

Morgan Advanced Materials (LSE: MGAM) is a UK-headquartered global manufacturer of specialized engineered products made from carbon, advanced ceramics and composites. It was the fi rst European strategic partner for the graphene activities at the University of Manchester National Graphene Institute, Morgan being recognized by Manchester for having the product engineering and design expertise required to commercialize the materials developed at the NGI. After being educated as a chemical engineer, Richard Clark has been with Morgan for 30 years, developing and commercializing materials across the spectrum of Morgan’s portfolio, most recently focusing on materials related to energy. Richard was part of Morgan’s team engaged with the University of Cambridge developing electrolytically produced carbon nanomaterials and has continued his involvement in this fi eld in collaboration with Morgan’s team at the Manchester NGI.

Abstract:

Since the ground-breaking article in Science in October 2004 describing the occurrence, isolation and potential signifi cance of graphene, there has been a huge interest in developing industrially scalable methods of manufacture from bottom-up and top-down routes. One such top-down route developed for the mass manufacture of graphene involves electrochemical exfoliation. Th is can be conducted in anodic (oxidative) and cathodic (reductive) regimens, with the latter more suitable for production of higher quality (containing fewer defects) graphene, but hindered by lower effi ciency and yield. This makes the selection of an appropriate electrolyte particularly important. Previous work has shown that graphene prepared by electrochemical exfoliation can be simultaneously functionalized with groups tailored to improve solubility in aqueous systems. In this case, functionalization signifi cantly enhances the specifi c capacitance of the material when used as an electrode in super capacitors.Th is presentation details the expansion of this work in two ways.Firstly, it shows the relative characteristics of diff erent types of electrolyte and suggests a mechanism for the performance in each case. Secondly, it details the use of the preferred electrolyte with appropriate additional reagents in the exfoliation of graphite and simultaneous functionalization of the product graphene with metal nanostructures, specifi cally various morphologies of gold and cobalt.Th e metal-functionalized graphene sheets show high catalytic activity and stability when used as electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reactions. Other uses of these materials are found in fl exible electronics, in biosensing and in biomedicine. Th e methods demonstrated can be readily extended to functionalize graphene with other metal salts or mixtures of metal salts, further expanding the applicability. Functionalization of graphene with metal nanostructures, gold (top) and cobalt (bottom). Th e inset pictures show the color change of the electrolyte as electrolysis time increases.

Speaker
Biography:

Hossein Sojoudi is an Assistant Professor in the Mechanical, Idustrial, and Manufacturing Engineering Department at the University of Toledo. Prior to joining UT, he was a Postdoctoral Associate and Lecturer in the Mechanical Engineering Department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) with a joint appointment in the Chemical Engineering Department. Prior to MIT, Hossein was a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Georgia Institute of Technology, where he obtained his PhD as well in Mechanical Engineering with a Minor in Materials Science. He received several awards including the Materials Research Society Best Presentation Award, Prestigious Ann Robinson Clough Grant, and several other awards from MIT

Abstract:

We present an electrochromic device (ECD) fabricated using PEDOT:PSS and graphene as active conductive electrode films and a fl exible compliant polyurethane substrate with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifl uoromethylsulfonyl) imide (EMI-TSFI) additive, as ionic medium. Th is device with a docile, elastic intermediate substrate along with a transparency controlled PEDOT:PSS fi lm provides a wide color contrast and fast switching rate. We harness wrinkling instability of graphene to achieve a hydrophobic nature without compromising transparency of the ECD. Th is mechanical self-assembly approach helps in controlling the wavelength of wrinkles generated by inducing measured prestrain conditions and regulating the modulus contrast by selection of underlying materials used, hereby controlling the extent of transparency. Th e reduction and oxidation switching times for the device were analyzed to be 5.76 s and 5.34 s for a 90% transmittance change at an operating DC voltage of 15 ± 0.1 V. Strain dependent studies show that the performance was robust with the device retaining switching contrasts even at 15% uniaxial strain conditions. Our device also exhibits superior antiwetting properties with an average water contact angle of 110° ± 2° at an induced radial prestrain of 30% in the graphene fi lm. A wide range color contrast, flexibility, and antiwetting nature of the device envision its uses in smart windows, visors, and other wearable equipment where these functionalities are of outmost importance for developing new generation of smart interactive devices.

Speaker
Biography:

Mineo Hiramatsu is a Full Professor of Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering and the Director of Research Institute, Meijo University, Japan. He served as the Director of The Japan Society of Applied Physics. His main fi elds of research are plasma diagnostics and plasma processing for the synthesis of thin films and nanostructured materials. Author of more than 100 scientifi c papers and patents on plasma processes for materials science. Member of organizing and scientifi c committees of international conferences on plasma chemistry and plasma processing. Japan Society of Applied Physics Fellow

Abstract:

Graphene (monolayer and few layers) is a two-dimensional material with the large anisotropy between in-plane and outof-plane directions. Carbon nanowalls (CNWs) are few-layer graphenes with open boundaries, standing vertically on a substrate. Th e sheets form a self-supported network of mazelike-wall structures. CNWs and similar graphene structures can be synthesized by several plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) techniques. CNWs are sometimes decorated with metal nanoparticles and biomolecules. Th e structure of CNWs with large surface area would be suitable for the platform in electrochemical and biosensing applications. CNW fi lms can be potentially used as electrodes of electrochmical sensor,capacitor, dye-sensitized solar cell, polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), and implantable glucose fuel cell (GFC). Among these, CNW electrodes in fuel cells should be decorated with catalytic nanoparticles such as Pt. From a practical point of view, control of CNW structures including spacing between adjacent nanowalls and crystallinity is signifi cantly important. Moreover, formation method of catalytic metal nanoparticles should be established. We carried out CNW growth using PECVD employing CH4/H2/Ar mixtures with emphasis on the structure control of CNWs. We report the eff ects of ion bombardment and catalytic metals on the nucleation of vertical nanographenes to realize active control of interspace between adjacent walls. Moreover, CNW surface was decorated with Pt nanoparticles by the reduction of chloroplatinic acid or by the metal-organic chemical deposition employing supercritical fl uid. We also report the performances of hydrogen peroxide sensor, PEFC and GFC, where CNW electrode was used.

Break: Lunch : 13:15-14:15 @ Hawaiian Gardens
Speaker
Biography:

Sungjin Park has completed his PhD from KAIST, Korea and postdoctoral studies from Northwestern University and University of Texas at Austin. Currently, he is an Assoicate Professor at Inha University. He has published more than 85 papers in reputed journals.

 

Abstract:

Chemical designing on nano-materials in molecular level would be a promising route to create new hybrid materials and to control various properties of nano- and molecular materials. Organometallic compounds have been a center of molecular catalysts with preeminent catalytic activity and selectivity in a wide range of chemical transformations. As carbonbased nanomaterials, such as graphene-based materials, carbon nanotubes, and carbon nitrides, are sterically bulky, and they exhibit a wide spectrum of electrical properties, they can dramatically tune the catalytic behavior of transition metal-based active species. Hybridization of organometallic complexes with graphene-based materials can give rise to enhance catalytic performances. In this presentation, I will discuss my recent research activities on the fundamental chemistry of carbon-based nano-materials as well as catalytic applications

Speaker
Biography:

K.V. Madhuri has completed her PhD at the age of 27 years from Sri Venkateswara University and postdoctoral studies from Universite de Moncton, CANADA. She is the Assoc. Professor &Assoc.Dean of Research & Development, in an esteemed University. She has published 19 papers in reputed national/international journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of reputed journals. She had presented about 27 research papers in national/International conferences. In addition to this, she had delivered invited talks in reputed institutes/conferences/Workshops/Orientation programs. She had recently fi nished a project under young Scientist scheme by Department of Science &Technology, New Delhi, India.

Abstract:

Transition metal oxides (TMO) is an interesting group of solid materials with a wide variety surface structures which affect the surface energy of these compounds and infl uence the chemical properties, optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Th e unusual properties of these oxides are due to the unique nature of outermost d-electrons. Th e general formulae of transition metal oxides MnO2n±1 where M represents the transition metal. Th ey have two dimensional vander Waal’s bonded layered structures (Ex:V2O5,MoO3--) or three dimensional frame work tunnel structures (Ex:WO3, LiCoO2----) which lead the materials for their applications in the fi eld of Electrochromic and opto electronic devices. Th e combination of solid state materials science with thin fi lm technology has signifi cantly reduced the size of component and leads to miniaturization of display devices in the emerging technology.
 
TMOs can be deposited as thin fi lm by Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) like thermal, electron beam , sputtering, so on and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) techniques like sol-gel, spin coating, spray pyrolisis so on. Th in fi lm deposition in  PVD technique consists of three major phases. In the fi rst phase, the material should be in the proper form to deposit. In the second stage, it is transported through the medium and in the third stage it should deposit on the substrate to form a continuous fi lm. Depending on the deposition parameters such as oxygen partial pressure, substrate temperature etc., one can deposit amorphous, polycrystalline and nanocrystalline thin fi lms for their eff ective utilization in devices. Th ese fi lms will be characterized for their composition, structure, morphology, vibrational and optical studies by using X-ray photo electron spectroscopy, X-ray Diff raction, Atomic force microscopy, InfraRed Spectroscopy , Raman Spectroscopy and UV-VIS Spectroscopy.

Speaker
Biography:

Larry G Christner received his Ph.D. from Pennsylvania State University in 1972 followed by 5 years at United Technologies Corporation working on carbon deposition in steam reforming and materials development for fuel cells. He spent the next 23 years at Fuel Cell Energy starting as Manager of materials science and was later promoted as Vice President. He retired in 2001 and started LGC Consultants LLC.

Abstract:

Microporous and mesoporous carbons are excellent materials for any energy applications. As capacitors, they exhibit high power, a large life cycle, high reliability, and low cost. Coconut shell carbons dominate this market because of their low cost. The large surface areas of these carbons also make them useful in many adsorption and catalytic systems. Th e pore structure of these carbons allows special selective processes to be carried out such as separation of O2/N2, CO2/H2O, Butene/Isobutene and many other processes. The detailed parameters of each process play an important role in the selectivity and effectiveness of the process.
 
In the work presented, some of the most important parameters are discussed for microporous and saran fibers at temperatures from 200oC to 1000oC. These materials exhibited adsorption characteristics of 4A angstrom and 5A angstrom molecular sieves. Activated diff usion is shown to be the dominant factor for exclusion of specifi c molecules. Th e dynamic size and shape of the molecules determines the observed amount of adsorption at a specifi c time and temperature. It can be concluded that when the molecular dimensions are close to the sizer and shape of the pores, the most important factors that determine the observed adsorption are time, temperature, relative pressure, and the diff usion path length.

Speaker
Biography:

Taiichi Otsuji received the Doctorate,Engineering degree from Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan in 1994. He has been a professor at RIEC, Tohoku University, Japan since 2005 after working for Kyushu Institute of Technology(1999-2005) and NTT Laboratories (1984-1999), Japan. He is authored and co-authored 250 peer-reviewed journals. He was awarded the Outstanding Paper Award of the 1997 IEEE GaAs IC Symposium, and has been served as an IEEE Electron Device Society Distinguished Lecturer since 2013. He is a Fellow of the IEEE, a senior member of the OSA, and a member of the MRS, SPIE, JSAP, and IEICE.

Abstract:

Graphene has attracted considerable attention due to its massless and gapless energy spectrum. We designed and fabricated our original distributed-feedback dual-gate graphene-channel fi eld-eff ect transistor (DFB-DG-GFET). Th e DG-GFET structure serves carrier population inversion in the lateral p-i-n junctions under complementary dual-gate (Vg1,2) biased and forward drain-source (Vd) biased conditions, promoting spontaneous broadband incoherent THz light emission. The tooth-brash-shaped DG forms the DFB cavity having the fundamental mode at 4.96 THz, which can transcend the incoherent broadband LED to the single-mode lasing action. Th e GFET channel consists of a few layer (non-Bernal) highest-quality
epitaxial graphene, providing an intrinsic fi eld-eff ect mobility exceeding 100,000 cm2/Vs. Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopy revealed the THz emission spectra for the fabricated samples under population inversion conditions; one sample exhibited a 1-7.6-THz broadband, rather intense (~80 μW) amplifi ed spontaneous emission and the other sample did a weak (~0.1 μW) single mode lasing at 5.2 THz both at 100K. Introduction of the graphene plasmonics in vdW 2D heterostructures is a key to increase the operating temperature and radiation intensity. Asymmetric dual-grating-gate metasurface structures may promote plasmonic superradiance and/or plasmonic instabilities, giving rise to giant THz gain enhancement at plasmonic resonant frequencies. Further improvement will be given by a gated double-graphene-layer (G-DGL) nanocapacitor vdW 2D heterostructures. Exploitation of the graphene plasmonics in vdW 2D heterostructures will be the key to realize roomtemperature,intense THz lasing.

Speaker
Biography:

Kun Lian, Obtained his M.S. and Ph.D. in Material Science and Engineering from Louisiana State University, in 1992 and 1995 respectively. Lian worked as Postdoctoral Research Follower at University Michigan at Ann Arbor after receiving his Ph.D. from 1997, Kun Lian jointed Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Louisiana State University/Southern University; as Assistant Professor, Associate Professor and Professor. In 2012, Lian jointed School of Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Suzhou, Xi’an Jiaotong University as professor and deputy dean until now.

Abstract:

Biological systems found in nature provide excellent examples of highly controlled and organized architectures that generate complex materials. Using these materials and their unique microstructures as templates to produce nano-structured materials can result in some special results that manmade templates can rarely/can’t achieve at current time.Th is presentation will demonstrate an innovative technology to produce the copper-carbon-core-shell nanoparticles (CCCSNs) using cellulose as templates (US Patent No.: US8,828,485 B2). Th e technology relies on reducing the Cu+2 ions by absorbing them in the cellulose (C6H10O5)n structures of natural fi bers and then, going through carbonization and refi ning processes to produce the CCCSNs. In contrast to the conventional methods, the nanoparticles made from this technology are core/shell structures in nature and dispersible in both water and organic solvents (such as oil) with very low cost. CCCSNs possesses many special properties that commercially available copper nanoparticles couldn’t have. CCCSNs have high physical/chemical stabilities and form the Cu<=>Cu2O equilibrium system without forming cupric oxide, which is signifi cant since cuprous oxide is an optical catalyst material with relatively low bandgap (2.137eV).Th e most unique property is the regeneration behavior of CCCSNs, when treated with reducing environment, the Cu<=>Cu2O system will return to pure copper status with no signifi cant changes in particle size distribution or core-shell structure. Because of the excellent stability, superior performance and low cost, CCCSNs have been tested as anti-bacteria; anti-termite; anti-algea and as an optical catalyst for volatile organic compounds (VOC) treatment reagents and achieved outstanding results.

Break: 16:45-17:05 @ Foyer
Speaker
Biography:

Mohammed got his bacholer’s degree in Physics in 2006 from Umm Al-Qura University and Master’s degree in Applied physics in 2010 from Malaya University. He is a PhD student in the Department of Physics at the University of Kansas.

Abstract:

We have fabricated a two-dimensional MoS2/graphene van der Waals heterostructure substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A stronger SERS enhancement was observed on the MoS2/graphene vdW heterostructure substrate compared to single-layer MoS2 or graphene substrate due to charge transfer and dipole-dipole interaction through the MoS2/graphene interface. Additionally, a novel substrate composed of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on MoS2/graphene vander Waals heterostructure was developed to explore the SERS eff ect of the AuNPs. Th e significant observed enhancement of this substrate can be attributed to the combination of the electromagnetic mechanism of plasmonic AuNPs and the muchenhanced chemical mechanism of the MoS2/graphene heterostructure via dipole-dipole interaction at the interface as compared to graphene only. The minimum detectable concentration of the R6G can reach 5x10-8M using a non-resonance 632.8 nm laser, which is an order of magnitude higher than that reported on the AuNPs/graphene substrate. SERS substrate based on MoS2/
graphene van der Waals heterostructure is an excellent SERS substrate for optoelectronics and biological detection.

Speaker
Biography:

Zahra Komeily Nia is doing her PhD at Deakin University (Australia) and recived her master and bachelor’s degrees from Tehran polytechnic (Iran) and Guilan universities (Iran). As an undergraduagte student she studied textile engineering and has some working knowledge in the fi led of chemistry of natural and synthetic fibers. During her master study, she has worked on nanomaterial characterization and fabrication and her research work was more focused on material science and engineering. In Feb 2015, she has recived Deakin University Postgraduate Research Scholarship (DUPR) and has worked on advanced characteriastion of graphene as her PhD project. She has published papers on her postgraduate research.

 

Abstract:

Free radicals have many functions, for example, as catalyst for chemical reactions and anti-oxidants in personal care products. However, most of the radical species used in industrial processes are highly toxic, expensive and not stable. Developing green, low-cost and stable free radicals is hence signifi cant. It has been revealed that radicals exist on the edge and defects of graphene. Th e radicals have been found to be ultra-stable and non-toxic. Th eir stability is attributed to the rigid π-conjugated planar structure of graphene which acts like a physical barrier for the radicals and prevents them to react with each other. Although the presence of graphene radicals has been demonstrated, little is known on how to control their production. Furthermore, the potential applications of graphene radicals remain largely unexplored. To understand graphene radical and its formation, chemical oxidation and exfoliation of graphite followed by diff erent reduction method was used as a technique for mass production of graphene. Th e chemical characterisation of GO and reduced GO samples beside the free radical measurments has indicated that the maximum radical content could be obtained on GO samples with a specifi c atomic ratio of carbon to oxygen. Th is means over oxidizing or over reducing of GO can decrease the radical population on its surface