Day 2 :
Michigan State University, USA
Time : 10.00 am
Amir H. Gandomi received his PhD from University of Akron, OH. He was selected as elite in 2008 by National Elites Foundation. He used to be a lecturer in several universities and he is currently a distinguished research fellow in an NSF center for the study of evolution in action (BEACON) located at Michigan State University, MI. He published over one hundred journal papers and four books. He is one of the most cited researchers in civil engineering field. He also served as associate editor, editor and guest editor in several prestigious journals. His research interests are artificial intelligence and their applications in engineering modeling and optimization.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques have been widely used during the last two decades and remain highly-researched topics, especially for materials and structural engineering problems. At first, applied AI techniques in engineering field will be presented and then new advances in them will be mentioned. Then, two main applications of AI techniques in both materials and structures fields, modelling and optimization will be discussed in this presentation. For the materials modelling and optimization some of key AI application such as coupled SelfSim and genetic programming framework will be introduced for non-linear material constitutive modelling. For application of AI in structural engineering, some special topics such as AIs for response modelling of a new structural system under seismic loads and optimization of large-scale structures (e.g. tower structures) will be expressed.
- Smart Materials & Structures Properties
Location: Independence B
Swansea University, UK
Mar Baselios College of Engineering and Technology, India
Swansea University, UK
Time : 10:40-11:05
Kiyohide Wada received B.Eng. honours degree from University of Glasgow, United Kingdom in 1999, and the Ph.D. in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore in 2008. He was involved in various commercial satellite space programs between 2009 and 2013. Currently he is a Senior Lecturer of Aerospace Engineering Portfolio, College of Engineering at the Swansea University. His research interest includes shape memory alloys (SMAs), application of SMAs in mechanical and aerospace engineering, low-shock hold and release mechanisms, and deployable antenna structures.
It is widely known that two-way memory effect (TWME) is not an inherent property of shape memory alloy. The development of TWME requires thermomechanical training. Experimental study showed that undergoing partial reverse transformation in the course of training leads to the emergence of temporal two-step transformation, which was traditionally observed in the calorimetry measurement of an arrested stress-free heating cycle. The present work introduces a macromechanical approach to explain the mechanism of two-step transformation and its associated effects on stress-assisted two-way memory effect (SATWME) and TWME. The appearance of two-step transformation was observed to be a one-time only phenomenon and it clearly disappeared in the next full transformation. The disappearance of two-step transformation highlighted the occurrence of microstructural rearrangement driven by the internal stress field in the successive training cycles. A strain comparison demonstrated that the dominance of retransforming stress-assisted martensite (SAM) during cooling promoted the formation of internal back stress. This makes the accommodation process of deformation-induced martensite generated via pre-straining and SAM difficult, owing to which immobilizes the dislocations movement in the forward transformation direction, and causes detrimental effect on the TWME.
Okayama University, Japan
Time : 11:05-11:30
Yuta Nishina is an associate professor at Okayama University, Japan. He started his research on organic chemistry at Okayama University. During his Ph.D. course, he joined in the research groups in MIT and Kobe University. He obtained Ph. D. on 2010, and started his academic carrier as assistant professor at Okayama University, and promoted to associate professor on 2014. On 2012, he started to use nanocarbons, especially graphene oxide, from a view point of organic chemistry. He is involved in projects toward industrial production and practical application of graphene oxide and its composite materials. He established his venture company (NiSiNa Materials, Co. Ltd.) in 2012 to distribute graphene oxide for practical application.
Graphene oxide (GO) has widely been employed in various fields, but its structure and composition has still not been fully controlled. Based on the formation mechanism of GO, we have developed general strategies to control the oxidation degree of graphene-like materials with two types of methods: oxidation of graphite by KMnO4 in H2SO4 (oGO), and reduction of highly oxidized graphene oxide by hydrazine (rGO). Even though the oxygen content was the same, oGO and rGO showed different properties in adsorption ability, oxidation ability, and electron conductivity, because of the difference in persisting graphitic structure and defects. These results will be a guideline for production of tailor-made GO. Applications such as conductive films, electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysts often require surface functionalization’s to improve GO’s performances. Recently, adsorbents and membranes for water purification have also been recognized as promising applications of graphene-like materials. With our tailor-made GO, we developed catalyst, membrane, lubricant additive, and anode for Li-ion battery.
Mar Baselios College of Engineering and Technology, India
Title: Conceptualization and design of a compliant universal joint by kinematic analysis of universal joint
Time : 11:50-12:15
Jibin Jacob is an assistant professor of Machine Design, Department of Mechanical Engineering at the Mar Baselios College of Engineering and Technology, Trivandrum, India. His main research areas are Computer aided design and analysis, Elastocaloric cooling effect using shape memory alloys, mechanical system designing, advanced manufacturing techniques etc. Currently, his area of interest is specifically focused on elastocaloric cooling and design of compliant mechanisms.
A universal joint is basically a flexible pivot point that transmits power through rotational motion between two shafts having misaligned intersecting axes. Purpose of this research is to propose and design a compliant mechanism, by analyzing the universal joint. The common design consists of two yokes, having a single bend angle, arranged with a pinion at right angles. Compliant version enables the joint with two bend angles, in two different planes. So as to achieve the compliance over the universal joint, kinematic analysis of common universal joint has been done and the results are generalized. For a common U- joint, pinion- yoke revolute have angular motion specifically for every bend angles. An important aspect of these revolutes is that, while in action they never go through complete cycles. In other words, each of these revolutes revolves only few degrees around its axis before returning to its original position. This angular motion is well studied for different bend angle combination up to 30 degree in two different planes. Based on the results, revolutes’ angular motions are generalized, and compliance over the common universal joint is achieved. This compliant mechanism can find its application as a tool holder that can create complex profiles along with rotational motion in the field of manufacturing, robotics, surgical instruments etc.
Tsinghua University, China
Title: The effect of electropulsing induced gradient topographic oxide coating of Ti-Al-V alloy strips on the fibroblast adhesion and growth
Time : 12:15-12:40
Guoyi Tang is professor of materials science, Advanced Materials Institute of Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, where he teaches courses in materials science frontier and engineering materials: performance, selection and design. He accumulated years of research experience when working as a visiting professor in Stuttgart University and Max-Planck Institute, Germany, University of Alaska Fairbanks and North Carolina State University, USA, and Nanyang Technology University, Singapore. His recent research interests focus on electroplastic processing technology, phase change materials, biomass and bio-degradable polymer composites, and etc. He has published more than 120 scientific papers and obtained 35 Chinese patents.
The effects of electropulsing induced gradient topographic oxide coating of Ti-Al-V alloy matrix strips on the fibroblast adhesion and growth were investigated. The goal in biomaterial surface modification was to possess desired recognition and specificity through modifying its surface condition like topological structure. Here we developed a unique strategy of high-energy electropulsing treatment (EPT) for manipulating surface gradient bio-functionalization of basal textured Ti-6Al-4V alloy strips with the surface gradient topographic oxide coating, which brings in the gradient distribution of surface conditions including matrix alloy, ordinary TiO2 film and TiO2 microwaves on a single strip. High-energy electropulse is frequently used as an electrically-treated method in improving the material microstructure and mechanical property. The current investigation reports firstly the surface modification under EPT aiming to improve the biocompatibility, which will meet the demand of biomaterials in different parts of human beings. Novel TiO2 microwave topological structure on the material surface resulted in better biocompatibility with more active fibroblast bio-reaction including higher cell viability, better physiological morphology and stronger adhesion binding, which is ascribed to surface chemical components, surface energy and specific surface area under EPT manipulation. Thus, the gradient functionalization of biomaterials formed within seconds under EPT in the titanium alloys could open an energy-saving and high-efficiency door to diverse biomedical applications including the tissue engineering and biological interfaces.
Tsinghua University, China
Title: The experimental exploration of sodium chloride solution on thermal behaviour of phase change materials
Time : 12:40-13:05
Guolin Song is an associate professor of materials science, Advanced Materials Institute of Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, where he teaches courses in functional polymer materials and materials science frontier. He obtained his Ph.D. degree from Colour and Chemistry Department at University of Leeds, UK in 2006. He also carried out a 2-year postdoctoral research work in Tsinghua University, China. His recent research interests focus on phase change materials, biomass and bio-degradable polymer composites, nano-materials and nano-technology, and etc. He has published more than 40 scientific papers (mostly are SCI indexed) and obtained 6 Chinese patents.
Solar energy, as an inexhaustible and green natural resource, has attracted researches’ attention for its promising future in industry. However, the applications of such energy are limited due to time and space constraints. Phase change materials (PCMs) are the effective substances for thermal energy storage. Nowadays, storing solar energy in the form of latent heat by using phase change materials (PCMs) is found to be one of the latest and the most efficient energy storage technologies. Compared to other energy storage methods, one striking feature of PCMs is the high energy storage density. Unfortunately, various problems such as high supercooling degree, low crystal growth rate and poor thermal conductivity greatly hinder the large-scale utilization of PCMs. The present investigation focuses on improving the crystallization and decreasing supercooling degree by adding various proportions of NaCl/NaCl solutions into the n-octadecane-based PCMs for thermal energy storage. The experimental results show that 20 wt. % NaCl solutions have the greatest effect on the thermal performance of PCMs. The supercooling degree has been minimized up to 6°C with the addition of NaCl. It can not only promote crystallization under 1 wt. % addition rate, but also enhance latent heat storage performance. Such observations have been verified by the kinetics of crystallization. The researches on supercooling could advance the applications of PCMs on various fields including solar energy, heat recovery, battery thermal management, green building and etc.
University of Manchester, UK
Time : 13:40-13:55
Diana E Aznakayeva is 3rd year PhD student in Condense Matter Physics Group at the University of Manchester, UK. She has 43 scientific papers. Her research area are smart materials, graphene based nanoplasmonics,metamaterials and nano electro-optical devices computation, fabrication and characterization.
Compact and fast optical modulators with low operating voltage and low power consumption are in great demand by the telecommunication industry. The task of creating such modulators can be addressed using the unique optical and electronic properties of graphene. A staunch progress have been recently made in designing hybrid graphene-based modulators working at telecommunication wavelength range where graphene is combined with various optical heterostructures, waveguides, interferometers and graphene gating is used as a method of electro-optical control. High frequency operation and reasonable large modulation depth have been demonstrated. However, devices which combine all important ingredients (compactness, speed, low operating voltage and low power consumption) are still lacking. Here the aim of our investigation is simple graphene-based telecommunication electro-optical modulators fabrication which guarantee extremely small modulation volume (<3), work at low gating voltages (~1V), have low power consumption (<1 µW) and show modulation depth (~4 %) using a single layer of graphene. We discuss various technological aspects necessary to achieve these parameters including the problems of graphene transfer, gating along with the choice of the optimal parameters for the optical heterostructures and provide the results of electrical and optical characterization of the devices. The novelty of our approach lies in careful choice of high quality graphene monolayer and implementation of a high-k-gate dielectric which give the possibility to apply small gate biases and obtain significant electro optical modulation effect. We believe that our devices (being easily integrable into any optical scheme) could find wide range of applications in the telecommunication industry.
East Carolina University, USA
Title: Systematic study of using iron oxide bearing sintering wastes for hard and soft ferrimagnetic glass ceramics preparation
Time : 13:55-14:10
Nehal Ali Erfan Abdelwahab has completed her Master’s degree in Chemical engineering department at Minia University, Egypt. She spent two years working for her PhD in the National research center in Cairo and now she is completing her PhD study in Biomedical engineering department at East Carolina University, Greenville, USA.
About 25% of iron oxides in the sintering process are wasted. In this paper sintering waste (SW) were used as raw materials for hard and soft magnetic glass ceramics (H-, SMGC). About 71% by wt. of SW was used for preparing SMGC, while ~46% was used for HMGC preparation, Differential thermal analysis revealed one broad exothermic peak at 830˚C for HMGC and at 803˚C for SMGC. X-ray diffraction shows crystallization of hematite and Zn-ferrite phases in SW and Zn-ferrite and Ba hexaferrite in SMGC and HMGC respectively. Transmission electron microscope revealed crystallization of nanosize particles > 20nm for SMGC and < 15nm for HMGC. Vibrating scanning magnetometer revealed increasing in saturation magnetization from ~26 emu/g for SW to ~44emu/g for SMGC and decreased to ~12 emu/g for HMGC.
University of Birmingham, UK
Time : 14:10-14:25
Fahad Alqahtani obtained his B.Sc. in Civil Engineering in 2008 from King Saud University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In 2009 he joined the University of Birmingham where he obtained M.Sc. degree in Construction Management (2010). He is currently pursuing his PhD at University of Birmingham. His research area is innovating sustainable construction materials and its potential uses in concrete. He has published one patent in synthetic aggregate for use in concrete.
Concrete industry needs millions of tons of aggregate comprising natural sands and gravels each year. In recent years there is an increasing trend to use recycled aggregate with a view to saving natural resources and to produce lightweight concrete. With this in mind a study was undertaken to produce an recycled plastic aggregate (RPA) from easily available materials such as waste plastic and fillers such as red sand. A laboratory study was undertaken to investigate the physical properties of RPA. Also concrete compressive strength and durability, latter in terms of chloride migration were investigated. Results for two w/c ratios with 100% replacement of conventional lightweight aggregate (LWA) with recycled plastic aggregate (RPA) showed that reduction in strengths of about 50% and about 13% reduction in chloride penetration. Nonetheless, strengths of 12 to 15 MPa were achieved, and thus it can be possible for this aggregate to be used in areas where low strengths are required, such as low side building cementations backfill and others.
University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Time : 14:25-14:40
Rok Ambrožič is a researcher in the field of chemical engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering and Technical Safety at the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. He works on design and development of new bio-based polymer materials. Recently he co-authored a paper entitled Synthesis, curing kinetics, thermal and mechanical behavior of novel cardanol-based benzoxazines published in Polymer, which summarizes his final work. He has published 2 peer-reviewed papers and some other reports. Now he finalizes his doctoral thesis, where he studied copolymers based on benzoxazine and epoxy resins.
The growing demand for petrol-based products and their negative impact on the environment forced both academic and industry researchers to find new renewable material for the synthesis of bio-based polymers. Their use is highly desirable, because of their low costs and eco-friendly nature. Among different renewable resources, natural phenols are one of the major and economical resources of natural chemicals. One of such naturally occurring phenol is also cardanol, which is manufactured from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). Recently, cardanol was heavily studied as starting material for the synthesis of novel bio-based polybenzoxazine resins. Polybenzoxazines are a newly developed class of thermosetting resins, which possess excellent properties such as high modulus and strength along with high glass transition temperature (Tg). Their main disadvantages are a very high temperature of curing (usually higher than 200 °C) and their low crosslink density, which is surprisingly low considering their high stiffness and Tg. To improve the crosslink density of polybenzoxazines a series of cardanol-based benzoxazine monomers with different amine compounds (aniline, furfurylamine and 4,4´-methylenedianiline) were synthesized, cured and characterized. The pre-epoxidation of cardanol was another approach to achieve a higher crosslink density of the resulting polymer material. It was found out that the introduction of additional polymerizable groups (oxazine, epoxy or furan ring) into benzoxazine molecule increased reaction enthalpy of curing and enhanced thermo-mechanical properties. Therefore, temperature of glass transitions, value of storage modulus and value of crosslink densities of final polymers were all significantly improved.
D I Adebiyi is a lecturer and researcher in new materials development. His research interests include laser surface engineering, cold spray coating and additive manufacturing. He is a receiver of an award for Innovation and excellence in the use of stainless steel by the Southern African Stainless Steel Development Association. He has authored many publications and has chaired plenary section in International conference
The application of Ti-6Al-4V in the aerospace industry is justified by its weight savings capacity, space limitation advantage, corrosion resistance and composite compatibility. Despite these excellent bulk properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, poor surface properties has always limit its extensive applications in the aerospace industry. These poor properties can be enhanced by laser coating with SiC. However, SiC coating usually has poor adherence to the substrate and are prone to cracking mainly due to thermal stress. This work investigates the effects of adding Al and Ti powders to SiC laser deposited on Ti-6Al-4V. Microstructural characterization and phase analysis were carried out using SEM/EDS and XRD. Surface hardness was measured using Vickers hardness tester. The coatings of SiC-based cermets were crack-free as opposed to that of pure SiC. The XRD results show that SiC decomposed to produce Si, Si2, SiC2, and gaseous carbon which diffuses into the matrix. These contribute to significant increase in hardness from 254.5 Hv0.3 in the native alloy to 1677.5 Hv0.3 in the coated sample
Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa.
Title: Improved corrosion and wear resistance of laser alloyed Zn-Sn-Ti composite coatings on UNS G10150 steel in 0.5M H2SO4 solution.
Time : 14:55-15:10
O S Fatoba is currently a PhD researcher rounding up his doctorate degree at Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa. He holds B.S (Mechanical Engineering) degree and M.S degrees in Mechanical Engineering & Metallurgical and Materials Engineering. His research work’s on Laser Based Surface Engineering of Steels for Enhanced Service Performance as well as process optimization via Artificial Neural Network, Genetic Algorithm, Finite Element Method, Taguchi and Response Surface Models. His research experience has culminated in publications of over 16 articles in peer-reviewed Journals and several oral presentations in both local and international conferences.
Surface deterioration by corrosion is one of the complications associated with ageing facilities and components especially under some service environments. The research work examines the corrosion behavior of laser alloyed UNS-G10150 steel; coatings have been obtained by laser surface alloying technique. Ternary combinations of Zn-Sn-Ti metallic powders were mixed and injected onto the surface of UNSG10150 mild steel substrate under different laser processing parameters. The steel alloyed samples were cut to corrosion coupons, immersed in sulfuric acid (0.5M H2SO4) solution at 300 C using electrochemical technique and investigated for its corrosion behavior. The morphologies and microstructures of the developed coatings and uncoated samples were characterized by Optic Nikon Optical microscope (OPM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM/EDS). Moreover, X-ray diffractometer (XRD) was used to identify the phases present. The improved properties were attributed to the formation of new corrosion phases ((Zn(OH)2, ZnO, ZnSn(OH)6, Ecandrewsite, syn(ZnTiO3), Anatase, syn(TiO2), Romarchite, syn(SnO), Zinc Tin Oxide (Zn2SnO4), Chinese white(ZnO), and fine eutectic microstructures. An improvement of 6.9-times the hardness of the steel substrate was achieved at high scanning speed which may be attributed to the fine microstructure, dislocations and the high degree of saturation of solid solution brought by the high scanning speed. The polarization resistance Rp (5388300 Ω.cm2) was 337,803-times the polarization of the UNSG10150 substrate and significant reduction in the corrosion rate was also achieved. In addendum, Response Surface Model [RSM] and Artificial Neural Network Model [ANN] were used for the optimization and modeling of the laser parameters since processing parameters played an important role in the quality of alloyed coating produced. Corresponding experimental results show a good qualitative conformity with the numerical model predictions.